Fertility (fertility) of women and men
According to the World Health Organisation(WHO), infertility is when a couple has not been able to successfully conceive within a 12-month period despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Couples are advised to consult a specialist at an early stage to find out the cause of the infertility. Reduced fertility or infertility can affect both sexes.
Causes of infertility or reduced fertility
Age plays a decisive role in fertility. While the "biological clock" is ticking for women and the last menstruation usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 45, the sperm quality of men deteriorates only slightly with increasing age. Organic causes can also influence involuntary childlessness. For example, a woman may have an ovarian dysfunction, while a man may suffer from undescended testicles. Hormonal imbalances can have a major impact on a woman's fertility, and medication can also limit a couple's fertility.
In today's world, high stress levels are no longer uncommon and are often considered normal. Stress can affect fertility. High consumption of nicotine, alcohol and caffeine also have a negative effect on fertility. Societal pressure of expectations, which creates the emotional burden of involuntary childlessness, can lead to restrictions and additional "procreative stress". Diet and weight can also affect the realisation of the desire to have children. Other influencing factors relate to environmental influences (e.g. pesticides) and competitive sport.
In summary, the following reasons can influence fertility:
- Biological reasons
- Stress-related reasons
- Medication reasons
- Nutritional reasons
- Competitive sports
- Environmental influences
Search for the reason
If pregnancy does not occur as hoped, it is usually the women who start looking for the reason for the childlessness. Men should also be examined at the same time as the woman. A spermiogram provides information about the man's current fertility. In women, there are a number of examinations (e.g. endometrial examination, etc.) to diagnose the cause of involuntary childlessness.
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The right time
A woman's fertile days can be calculated. For this, it is important that the woman knows her cycle. With an ovulation calculator (e.g. app or online), the woman's ovulation can be determined, so that the "optimal" time for a woman's fertilisation can be used. Men do not have "fertile days" in this sense. If there are no restrictions on the part of the man, he is always fertile.
A distinction is made between primary and secondary infertility. Primary infertility is when a woman has never become pregnant despite unprotected sexual intercourse. Secondary infertility refers to the circumstance when a pregnancy has already taken place and no further pregnancy can subsequently take place.